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Questions and Answers on Ebola Virus Disease

Questions and Answers on Ebola Virus Disease

BY Professer Doctor. Robert KIKIDI MBOSO KAMA, Ph.D
Chief Executive Officer of Africa-Santé, asbl.


1. What is Ebola?

Ebola virus disease (MVE) (previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) is a serious, often fatal disease with a fatality rate of up to 90%. As the name suggests, it is due to the Ebola virus, which belongs to the filo virus family.
It first appeared in 1976, during two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Yambuku, a village near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the other in an isolated area of Sudan. The origin of the virus is unknown, but currently available data suggest that some fruit bats (Pteropodidae) are possible hosts.

2. How is the human being infected with the virus?

Humans become infected through contact with either infected animals (usually dehorning, cooking, or eating them) or with the body fluids of infected people. Most cases occur as a result of human-to-human transmission that occurs when blood, body fluids or secretions (stool, urine, saliva, sperm) of infected individuals enter the body of a healthy person through intermediate of a cutaneous lesion or mucous membranes. Infection also occurs when contact between a skin lesion or mucous membranes with items or environments contaminated by the body fluids of an infected subject. This may include clothing, bedding, gloves, protective equipment and soiled medical waste, such as hypodermic syringes.

3. Who is most at risk?

During an outbreak, the most exposed people are:
• health workers;
• family members in close contact with infected persons;
• relatives or friends in direct contact with the body of the deceased during burial rites.

4. Why are those who participate in burial rites at risk of contracting Ebola?

The viral load remains high after death, so that the bodies of those who died of this disease should only be handled by people wearing sufficient personal protective equipment and they should be buried immediately.
WHO recommends that only burial teams trained and equipped to bury the deceased properly, safely and with dignity, take care of the bodies of those who died of Ebola.

5. Why are health workers more at risk of getting Ebola?

Health workers are at greater risk of infection if they do not wear sufficient personal protective equipment (PPE) or if they do not apply infection prevention and control measures when they are 'occupy patients.
All health care providers working at all levels of the health system, such as hospitals, clinics or health posts, must be fully informed of the disease and its mode of transmission, and must also adhere strictly to the recommended precautions.

6. Can the Ebola virus be transmitted sexually?

Sexual transmission of the Ebola virus from man to woman is very possible, but has not yet been proven. Transmission from woman to man is less likely, but theoretically possible.

More surveillance data will be needed and further research into the risks of sexual transmission and, in particular, the presence of viable and transmissible viruses in sperm based on the time elapsed. In the meantime, and on the basis of current evidence, WHO recommends the following measures:

• All Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should be counseled on safer sex practices until sperm has twice tested negative. Survivors will be provided with condoms.
• Men who survive Ebola should be tested for sperm three months after the onset of illness, then for those who test positive, test each month until they have given two tests. Negative in search of the virus in sperm by RT-PCR, with an interval of one week between the two tests. Normal sexual practices without fear of transmission of the Ebola virus.
• Those who have survived the disease and their partners must either:

o abstain from sexual intercourse, or
o Adopt safer sex practices by using condoms correctly and regularly until sperm has twice given a negative test.

• When tests are negative, survivors can return to normal sexual practices without fear of transmission of the Ebola virus.

WHO recommends that men who have survived the Ebola virus disease have safer sex and respect personal hygiene for 12 months after the onset of symptoms or until their sperm given twice a negative test for the Ebola virus.
• Until their sperm has twice tested negative for Ebola, men who have survived the disease must adhere to the rules of personal hygiene and hand hygiene by washing themselves thoroughly. water and soap after any physical contact with semen, including after masturbation. During this time, used condoms should be handled and discarded with care.
• During this time, used condoms should be handled and discarded carefully to avoid contact with seminal fluid.
• All survivors, their partners and their families must be considered with respect, dignity and compassion.

7. What are the typical signs and symptoms of Ebola infection?

They vary, but sudden onset fever, severe weakness, muscle aches, headache, and throat irritation are common at the onset of the disease (so-called "dry phase"). As the disease progresses, vomiting and diarrhea ("wet phase"), skin rash, renal and hepatic dysfunction, and in some cases internal and external hemorrhages are commonly observed.

8. How long does it take between infection and the first symptoms?

The incubation period, that is the time elapsed between infection and the onset of symptoms, ranges from 2 to 21 days. The patient is not contagious as long as he has no symptoms. Only laboratory tests can confirm the Ebola virus disease.

9. When should I consult?
Anyone with symptoms suggestive of Ebola (fever, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, diarrhea) who has been in contact with a known or suspected Ebola case, living or deceased, or who has been to an area where We know that the Ebola virus disease is present, must consult immediately.
10. Is there a treatment or a vaccine?
Supportive care, including the replacement of water losses, carefully managed and controlled by trained health professionals, improves the chances of survival. Other treatments are used to help patients survive Ebola, including, if available, kidney dialysis, blood transfusions, plasma replacement.
An experimental Ebola vaccine has been shown to be highly protective against this deadly virus in a major trial in Guinea. This product, called rVSV-ZEBOV, was studied in a trial in which 11,841 people participated in 2015.

11. Can we treat a case of Ebola at home?
WHO does not advise families and communities to provide home care for people with symptoms of Ebola. They have to go to a hospital or treatment center with doctors and nurses who are equipped to treat this disease.

12. Can we prevent Ebola?

You can protect yourself from Ebola infection by applying specific prevention and control measures, wash your hands, avoid contact with body fluids from suspected or confirmed Ebola cases, and refrain from manipulate or prepare the bodies of the deceased if the Ebola virus is the suspected or proven cause of death.




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Questions and Answers on Ebola Virus Disease

Postée le: 17.09.2019
Ville : KINSHASA
Description

Questions and Answers on Ebola Virus Disease

BY Professer Doctor. Robert KIKIDI MBOSO KAMA, Ph.D
Chief Executive Officer of Africa-Santé, asbl.


1. What is Ebola?

Ebola virus disease (MVE) (previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) is a serious, often fatal disease with a fatality rate of up to 90%. As the name suggests, it is due to the Ebola virus, which belongs to the filo virus family.
It first appeared in 1976, during two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Yambuku, a village near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the other in an isolated area of Sudan. The origin of the virus is unknown, but currently available data suggest that some fruit bats (Pteropodidae) are possible hosts.

2. How is the human being infected with the virus?

Humans become infected through contact with either infected animals (usually dehorning, cooking, or eating them) or with the body fluids of infected people. Most cases occur as a result of human-to-human transmission that occurs when blood, body fluids or secretions (stool, urine, saliva, sperm) of infected individuals enter the body of a healthy person through intermediate of a cutaneous lesion or mucous membranes. Infection also occurs when contact between a skin lesion or mucous membranes with items or environments contaminated by the body fluids of an infected subject. This may include clothing, bedding, gloves, protective equipment and soiled medical waste, such as hypodermic syringes.

3. Who is most at risk?

During an outbreak, the most exposed people are:
• health workers;
• family members in close contact with infected persons;
• relatives or friends in direct contact with the body of the deceased during burial rites.

4. Why are those who participate in burial rites at risk of contracting Ebola?

The viral load remains high after death, so that the bodies of those who died of this disease should only be handled by people wearing sufficient personal protective equipment and they should be buried immediately.
WHO recommends that only burial teams trained and equipped to bury the deceased properly, safely and with dignity, take care of the bodies of those who died of Ebola.

5. Why are health workers more at risk of getting Ebola?

Health workers are at greater risk of infection if they do not wear sufficient personal protective equipment (PPE) or if they do not apply infection prevention and control measures when they are 'occupy patients.
All health care providers working at all levels of the health system, such as hospitals, clinics or health posts, must be fully informed of the disease and its mode of transmission, and must also adhere strictly to the recommended precautions.

6. Can the Ebola virus be transmitted sexually?

Sexual transmission of the Ebola virus from man to woman is very possible, but has not yet been proven. Transmission from woman to man is less likely, but theoretically possible.

More surveillance data will be needed and further research into the risks of sexual transmission and, in particular, the presence of viable and transmissible viruses in sperm based on the time elapsed. In the meantime, and on the basis of current evidence, WHO recommends the following measures:

• All Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should be counseled on safer sex practices until sperm has twice tested negative. Survivors will be provided with condoms.
• Men who survive Ebola should be tested for sperm three months after the onset of illness, then for those who test positive, test each month until they have given two tests. Negative in search of the virus in sperm by RT-PCR, with an interval of one week between the two tests. Normal sexual practices without fear of transmission of the Ebola virus.
• Those who have survived the disease and their partners must either:

o abstain from sexual intercourse, or
o Adopt safer sex practices by using condoms correctly and regularly until sperm has twice given a negative test.

• When tests are negative, survivors can return to normal sexual practices without fear of transmission of the Ebola virus.

WHO recommends that men who have survived the Ebola virus disease have safer sex and respect personal hygiene for 12 months after the onset of symptoms or until their sperm given twice a negative test for the Ebola virus.
• Until their sperm has twice tested negative for Ebola, men who have survived the disease must adhere to the rules of personal hygiene and hand hygiene by washing themselves thoroughly. water and soap after any physical contact with semen, including after masturbation. During this time, used condoms should be handled and discarded with care.
• During this time, used condoms should be handled and discarded carefully to avoid contact with seminal fluid.
• All survivors, their partners and their families must be considered with respect, dignity and compassion.

7. What are the typical signs and symptoms of Ebola infection?

They vary, but sudden onset fever, severe weakness, muscle aches, headache, and throat irritation are common at the onset of the disease (so-called "dry phase"). As the disease progresses, vomiting and diarrhea ("wet phase"), skin rash, renal and hepatic dysfunction, and in some cases internal and external hemorrhages are commonly observed.

8. How long does it take between infection and the first symptoms?

The incubation period, that is the time elapsed between infection and the onset of symptoms, ranges from 2 to 21 days. The patient is not contagious as long as he has no symptoms. Only laboratory tests can confirm the Ebola virus disease.

9. When should I consult?
Anyone with symptoms suggestive of Ebola (fever, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, diarrhea) who has been in contact with a known or suspected Ebola case, living or deceased, or who has been to an area where We know that the Ebola virus disease is present, must consult immediately.
10. Is there a treatment or a vaccine?
Supportive care, including the replacement of water losses, carefully managed and controlled by trained health professionals, improves the chances of survival. Other treatments are used to help patients survive Ebola, including, if available, kidney dialysis, blood transfusions, plasma replacement.
An experimental Ebola vaccine has been shown to be highly protective against this deadly virus in a major trial in Guinea. This product, called rVSV-ZEBOV, was studied in a trial in which 11,841 people participated in 2015.

11. Can we treat a case of Ebola at home?
WHO does not advise families and communities to provide home care for people with symptoms of Ebola. They have to go to a hospital or treatment center with doctors and nurses who are equipped to treat this disease.

12. Can we prevent Ebola?

You can protect yourself from Ebola infection by applying specific prevention and control measures, wash your hands, avoid contact with body fluids from suspected or confirmed Ebola cases, and refrain from manipulate or prepare the bodies of the deceased if the Ebola virus is the suspected or proven cause of death.




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